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Barcodes are commonly used for categorizing products in a store having hundreds of products. They are used for representing product information, most commonly identification numbers, in a machine readable format. Then we can use scanners to read the barcodes and process the information contained them using computers. Usually if you want to list your products in a store, then you need to have a valid identification number. This product number is obtained form the authority regulating your product. For example, ISBN is the authority for publishing books. You have to fill a form and get a valid ISBN number for your book. Then you can convert the number into a barcode and add it to the book. This is typically added to the back of the book. Then you can supply your books to a book store.
Inkscape has a builtin extension for generating Barcodes codes. This makes the process of generating a Barcode much more easier. We’ll have to enter only the information and then click a button to generate the Barcode. Since Inkscape is a vector art program we can resize the Barcode to any size we want.
Quick Response codes or more commonly known as QR codes are a special type of bar code. They are commonly used for representing information like website URLs and other information in a format which is accessible for anyone with a smart device with a camera. Since mobile phones have become ubiquitous essentially every person with one is able to read information in a QR code.
Inkscape has a builtin extension for generating QR codes. This makes the process of generating the QR code much more easier. We’ll have to enter only the information and then click a button to generate the QR code. Since Inkscape is a vector art program we can resize the QR to any size we want. This is especially helpful when the code needs to be printed on large banners or posters.
VLC media player is a free and open source program. It is capable of playing almost any video or audio format. It has features that can help enhance the experience with the media. It is also capable of other features like screen recording and format conversion. It is available for all major desktop and mobile platforms.
You can download VLC media player from:
Google Photos is a free service from Google which allows for unlimited photos and videos storage. It comes preinstalled on some Android phones and is available for most mobile platforms. Since it is a web service it can be accessed in devices having a browser. There is also a software version called Backup and Sync which allows for backing up certain folders in Google Drive and Google Photos.
You can download Backup and Sync from:
Synfig Studio is a free and open source 2D animation software. It specializes in the tweening process. In this process, we can reduce the number of frames to be created to only keyframes. Synfig Studio can import images from other programs and can export the animation as video or sequence of images.
You can download Synfig from the following link:
Inkscape is a free and Open Source vector graphics editor. It is available on all major platforms like Windows, MacOS, and Linux. As a vector editor, it has a simple to use interface. It can export images to both raster and vector formats. It is particularly useful for making logos, infographics, illustrations, diagrams, and charts.
You can download Inkscape from the following link:
Synfig Studio is a free and open source 2D animation software. It specializes in the creation of animated content using a technique called tweening. Tweening is a short form for the term “in-betweening”. Normally in an animated video, someone working on the project must create the beginning frame and ending frame for a particular cut or scene. Then another person is typically responsible for filling the frames in between. This can be a tedious process. Synfig Studio was originally created to simplify this process. It has since developed into a full-blown animation software.
Synfig Studio is a 2D animation program. It can be used for making animated films and other kinds of videos that have animated content. Unlike other 2D animation software, it is based on a vector toolset. This means that the layers created using synfig can be upscaled to obtain high resolution videos without any loss in detail. Synfig Studio has support for multiple video formats.
It is also possible to render the animation as a series of images. This can be helpful in situations where it is needed to render in multiple video formats or formats that are not supported by Synfig. Synfig Studio also has the ability to import and work with images created using other programs.
Perhaps the best showcase for Synfig Studio is the Morevna Project. A group of Russian volunteers have used Synfig Studio for creating a sci-fi anime project.
Synfig is available for all popular platforms like Windows, MacOS and Linux. On the Linux platform there are no commercial animation programs available. So Synfig Studio is one of compelling options for 2D animation on that platform.
You can download Synfig Studio from Synfig.org
A list of all HTML elements.
A list of all HTML attributes.
A list of all inline elements.
A list of all block elements.
A list of all HTML and XML entity character references.
HTML wiki article.
HTML5 wiki article.
As we learned in the last lesson, HTML5 is a lenient language and allows for different styles of writing code. Many people who switched over to XHTML still write web pages today in a similar style. However, this does require some extra effort from the developer. This is especially true if the developer is not taking advantage of an advanced editor. Many of the problems like mismatching tags, missing end tags and potentially erroneous code are easily identifiable in editors that have Syntax Highlighting. Many editors have features link auto-generation of end tags and quotes. So choosing the right code editor could save some hassles and lead to well-formed code. The well-formed code does not necessarily mean XHTML compliant code. It is meant for code that complies with the HTML5 standards.
The Doctype has been used in previous generations for providing additional validation information. This information about the document was typically a reference to a standard file from W3C. In the past, this used to be a nightmare for developers. The Doctype format was difficult to write from memory for many people. Most developers copied the code from the documentation or from their previous pages. Fortunately HTML5 has the shortest and easiest Doctype available. If the Doctype is omitted then browsers switch to a mode known as quirks mode. In this mode, the browsers try to behave like browsers from the past for displaying older versions of HTML. If we omit the Doctype in our web pages then it may not be displayed. We recommend including the Doctype at the beginning of all pages.
HTML5 is not case sensitive. This means that we can use both upper and lower case letters. But for the sake of consistency, we need to stick with one format. Since there were no editors with Syntax Highlighting features in the early days, developers used upper case for elements and attribute to differentiate them from content. This is not required now since editors with Syntax Highlighting are widespread. It may be beneficial to use a lower case because they are easier to type.
<p id="unique">This paragraph is unique.</p>
HTML5 allows for both single and double quotes for quoting attribute values. It also allows for omitting them in certain situations. But this is not recommended. Choosing one of the two and using them throughout the project is the best solution. An example of using single quotes.
<p class='red'>This is a red paragraph.</p>
Also, we can use double quotes.
<p class="red">This is a red paragraph.</p>
Always use the same type of quote. Mixing them can lead to breaking the page.
HTML5 does not require elements to be closed. This is not good practice. We should at least close the nonempty elements.
<p>This is a paragraph.</p>
Empty attributes can be closed within the starting tag. This can be useful if you use any XML software to parse HTML web pages. Otherwise, we can safely use empty elements without closing.
<img src="example.png" alt="Example Image">
Images should always be provided with alternate text and dimensions. If the height and width are specified then the browser will allocate the space for the image. This can reduce page flickering.
<img src="example.png" alt="Example Image" style="width:300px;height:300px">
In HTML5 it is valid to have empty attributes. We can take advantage of this liberty to have cleaner code.
<input type="text" disabled>
HTML5 ignores extra whitespace. We can take advantage of this by making our code more readable by padding lines and indenting code to reflect the document structure. Many editors indent code by default. When it is time for deployment these HTML files can be minified and compressed for better performance.
<select> <option value="red">Red</option> <option value="blue">Blue</option> </section>
The title element should be always specified. The title element has other uses like SEO and bookmarks. So we recommend specifying a descriptive title element for every page.
The script elements should be provided at the end of the page right before the closing body tag. This allows for the page to be loaded before requesting for the scripts.
All the web pages written in HTML should have the extension .html or .htm. We recommend using lower case for file names. Different servers have different policies for file names. Some servers are case insensitive while others are case sensitive. This can lead to problems when the filename on the server and file name in the link do not match.